Cryptography Cheat Sheet

This comprehensive cryptography cheat sheet guide aims to provide a detailed overview of essential cryptographic concepts, algorithms, and practices to enhance your understanding of this critical field.

Cryptography Cheat Sheet
Topic Description Algorithm/Example
Cryptography Fundamentals
Symmetric Encryption Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption AES, DES, 3DES, RC4
Asymmetric Encryption Uses a pair of keys (public & private) RSA, ECC, ElGamal
Hash Functions Generates fixed-size hash values from input data SHA-256, MD5, Blake2
Message Authentication Codes (MAC) Produces a tag to verify message integrity HMAC, CMAC, Poly1305
Digital Signatures Ensures authenticity and integrity of a message RSA signatures, DSA, ECDSA
Key Exchange
Diffie-Hellman (DH) Securely exchanges cryptographic keys DHKE, ECDH
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) Variant using elliptic curve cryptography ECDHE
Encryption Modes
Electronic Codebook (ECB) Encrypts each block of data independently ECB(AES)
Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) XORs previous block's ciphertext with the next input CBC(AES)
Galois Counter Mode (GCM) Combines counter mode with Galois field multiplication GCM(AES)
Digital Certificates
X.509 Certificates Contains public key and identity information Issuer, Subject, Validity period
Certificate Authorities (CAs) Trusted entities issuing digital certificates Let's Encrypt, VeriSign, Digicert
SSL/TLS Secure communication over networks TLS 1.3, Cipher suites
SSH Secure remote access and file transfers Key exchange, SCP, SFTP
Cryptography Best Practices
Key Management egularly update keys, use strong randomness Key rotation, Hardware RNG
Forward Secrecy Protects past communications even if keys are compromised Ephemeral keys
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) Generates unique keys for each session ECDHE, DHKE
Common Attacks
Brute Force Attack Trying all possible keys to decrypt data Password cracking, Key search
Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attack Intercepting and altering communication SSL-stripping, Impersonation
Birthday Attack Finding collisions in hash functions Collision in MD5
Cryptography Tools
OpenSSL Open-source toolkit for SSL/TLS and cryptography Gen keys, Encrypt/Decrypt
GnuPG (GPG) Encryption and digital signatures with OpenPGP Encrypt files, Sign messages
Hashcat Password recovery tool for hash algorithms Brute force hash attacks
Wireshark Network protocol analyzer Analyzing encrypted traffic
Cryptography Regulations
GDPR General Data Protection Regulation Data encryption, Consent
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standards Approved encryption algorithms
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Patient data protection
Emerging Trends
Homomorphic Encryption Perform computations on encrypted data Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE)
Quantum Cryptography Using quantum properties for secure communication Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)
Blockchain and Cryptography Security mechanisms in blockchain technology Public key infrastructure in blockchain

This table serves as a starting point for your comprehensive cryptography cheat sheet. Remember that cryptography is a complex topic, so make sure to thoroughly understand each concept to enhance your knowledge and proficiency in this critical field.

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